Monday, August 24, 2020
What Is Mercury? As any individual who's at any point broken a thermometer can bear witness to, mercury is a captivating substance. It additionally has an intriguing history. Named after the armada footed Roman errand person of the divine beings, mercury has been utilized for over 2,000 years. Mercury mineral cinnabar has even been found spread on Neolithic skulls. Its originally recorded notice is a reference by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C., when the brilliant white, overwhelming metal was utilized in strict functions. Spanish excavators utilized mercury to process gold mineral for antiquated Rome; when their mercury gracefully ran out, gold creation dropped and set moving the decay of the Roman Empire. Today mercury represents a genuine danger, this time ecological. People far and wide reason mercury to enter the air fundamentally when they consume coal or burn squander. Studies from Sweden and Florida recommend that mercury likewise dissipates from landfills, however just 0.0001 percent. Groundwater tainting from old dumps is of concern yet burning is the significant way by means of which mercury contaminates the globe. Mercury once in a while exists in a free state in nature; it's recuperated from red mercuric sulfide in topographically late volcanic rocks. The world stock of mined mercury is assessed at 600,000 tons, put away for the most part in conditions of the previous Soviet Union. (Mercury has not been mined in Canada since 1975.) Researchers gauge that man-made mercury discharges are two-to multiple times more prominent than those of nature. The run of the mill mercury substance of lakes has expanded up to sevenfold since industrialization. Corrosive downpour breaks up lake-rock and discharges mercury to water. (Stone contains about 0.2 p/m mercury.) With a dissolving purpose of short 38.87?C, metallic or essential mercury (the structure utilized in thermometers) promptly disintegrates and can be moved significant distances. The vaporization pace of mercury copies with each 10?C temperature increment and its habitation time in the environment is as long as three years. Of course, mercury gathers and collects in cool atmospheres, for example, the Arctic or mountain locales. In spite of the fact that distant from modern action, these territories have become storehouses of the world's mercury discharges. Mercuric chloride, a straightforward salt, is the prevalent structure in many surface waters. Practically all the mercury found in creature tissues is methyl mercury, a water-dissolvable harmful natural mercury compound. Industrious and non-biodegradable, mercury biomagnifies up the evolved way of life. In the Arctic as not many as six stages remain between ingestion by infinitesimal life forms and utilization by individuals. Pregnant ladies can pass mercury from tainted fish to their unborn youngsters. Poisonous impacts incorporate focal sensory system and kidney harm, mental hindrance, visual deficiency and cerebral paralysis.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Ã Procter and Gamble (PG) is a worldwide financial specialist, an organization that is consistently on advertising and fortifying its image names as being at the highest point of the pack. One case of how the organization has utilized online networking to fortify its image and afterward offer a transient salary play. The innovativeness in promoting today can be astonishing when one uses long range interpersonal communication in mix with brand mindfulness. What's more, this sort of brisk reasoning and mindfulness can separate an organization, adding to deals. Procter and Gamble is an incredible case of this. P&G has a reason to keep current on occasions that occur during that time that could affect its brands. It searches for things that might have an immediate disposition upon faithful clients. Ã¢â¬Å"In one occasion, for instance, the Tide brand acted the hero after a searing blast during the Dayton 500 secured the Speedway with 200 gallons of consuming fuel. Audience members w atched track laborers utilizing Tide to clean the track during a two-hour delay in the Great American Race. Corporate Governance is the association of the administration, investors and Board of Directors to help guarantee that all investorsÃ¢â¬both investors and creditorsÃ¢â¬are secured against chiefs acting exclusively in their own wellbeing. Corporate Governance comprises of laws, arrangements, methodology and, in particular, rehearses that guarantee the prosperity of the advantages of the Company. Corporate Governance is at its most elevated levels when the board goes about as though they are long haul financial specialists in the Company.The arrangements, methods and practices explained in this area show that Procter and Gamble pays attention to Corporate Governance very. Our administration goes about as long haul financial specialists of the Company since they, as most Procter and Gamble representatives at all levels, are in certainty long haul speculators. Workers Are Long-Term Investors In 1887, preceding P&G was even a traded on an open market organization, William Cooper Procter presented a benefit sharing project for workers. At the time he stated, Ã¢â¬Å"We should let the representatives share in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s profit. That will give them a motivator to increment earnings.Ã¢â¬ He updated that program in 1903 to have the benefit sharing be granted as real P&G stock. He contemplated that as representatives became investors, their monetary advantages and those of the Company would be bound all the more intently together. That program despite everything exists today with an enormous piece of each U.S. employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s retirement comprising of P&G stock. Moreover, for all intents and purposes all representatives own P&G stock or stock rights by means of different venture programs. On account of that reality, employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ financial interests are adjusted to those of the Company. Further, our Executive Share Ownership Program requires senior administrators to claim portions of Company stock and additionally confined stock units esteemed at multiple times base pay for the Chief Executive Officer, and multiple times base compensation for the other senior officials. Non-representative executives should possess Company stock and additionally confined stock units worth multiple times their yearly money retainer. These pay programs help to guarantee the arrangement of the interests of our senior administrators and chiefs with investors. A Foundation of Integrity, Control and Stewardship P&G has a solid history of working with honesty all through the CompanyÃ¢â¬at all levels, in all nations, both inside and remotely. Our activities and the activities of every one of our workers are represented by our Purpose, Values and Principles. The reason for each choice we make at P&G can be found in our Purpose, Values and PrinciplesÃ¢â¬our PVPs. The lucidity and consistency of the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s PVPs is the one factor over all others that has driven the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s development over ages. Our duty to work dependably is reflected in the means we have set up to guarantee thorough monetary control and Corporate Governance. We have a functioning, competent and persistent Board of Directors that satisfies the necessary guidelines of freedom, with individuals who comprehend their job in giving solid Corporate Governance. Our Audit Committee is included only of free executives, with noteworthy monetary information and experience. The Audit Committee likewise meets rou tinely in private meeting with the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s autonomous inspectors, Deloitte and Touche LLP. We keep up a solid inside control condition. Our thorough business process controls incorporate composed strategies and techniques, isolation of obligations and the cautious choice and improvement of workers. The framework is intended to give sensible affirmation that exchanges are executed as approved andÃ¢ appropriately recorded, that benefits are shielded and that bookkeeping records are adequately solid to allow the arrangement of budget reports acclimating in every single material regard with bookkeeping standards by and large acknowledged in the U.S. We screen these interior controls through a progressing system of review self-appraisal and inside and outside reviews. We keep up divulgence controls and methodology intended to guarantee that data required to be unveiled is recorded, prepared, summed up and announced in an auspicious and precise way. Our Disclosure Committee is co ntained senior-level administrators liable for assessing revelation ramifications of noteworthy business exercises and occasions. We execute budgetary stewardship by keeping up explicit projects and exercises to guarantee that workers comprehend their trustee obligations to investors. This continuous exertion envelops money related order in key and day by day business choices and carries specific concentration to keeping up exact monetary revealing and successful controls. What's more, our Global Leadership Council is effectively associated with thorough oversight of the business. We fortify key representative obligations through the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Worldwide Business Conduct, which subtleties managementÃ¢â¬â¢s and the Board of DirectorsÃ¢â¬â¢ duty to lead the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s business issues with high moral principles. Each representative is required to be prepared on the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Worldwide Business Conduct Manual, and each worker is considered by and by responsible fo r consistence. Bits of the Worldwide Business Conduct Manual include P&GÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Ethics for SEC and New York Stock Exchange Regulatory Purposes, as further portrayed in the Manual. Doing WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Right P&GÃ¢â¬â¢s notoriety is earned by our direct: what we state, what we do, the items we make, the administrations we give and the manner in which we act and treat others. As scrupulous residents and representatives, we need to make the right decision. For P&G, and our worldwide tasks, this is the best way to work together. A.188.8.131.52. Outside writing about social/moral issues 100.0% A+ The organization gives exhaustive and straightforward social/moral giving an account of an ordinary premise. Inclusion: Group-wide inclusion (= 100% of workers areÃ¢ covered by announcing). Remark: The organization gives an account of social/moral issues in its Sustainability Reports and on its corporate site just as subsidiary sites (www.scienceinthebox.com, www.pgbeautyscience.com). The organization gives data on representatives (decent variety and wellbeing and security information, cutbacks/outplacement programs, preparing, working conditions), item duty, just as on its locale association an d magnanimous activities. Also, P&G provides details regarding HSE resistance and fines. A few issues in the report are canvassed inside and out (for example network activities, assorted variety, preparing and shopper data). A few issues, be that as it may, are just shrouded in a fairly broad way (for example working conditions). Aside from strategies and principles, there is just little data on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s gracefully chain the executives, for example, on provider reviews or guiding as to social issues. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s 2007 maintainability report was readied utilizing the Global Reporting InitiativeÃ¢â¬â¢s revealing rules. No data is accessible whether the report has been inspected by an outer bookkeeper. BATAVIA, Ohio (AdAge.com) Ã¢â¬ Procter and Gamble Co. also, Unilever have struggled over numerous things throughout the decades, from cleanser offers to spy embarrassments. However, the most recent battleground might be the most astonishing and charming Ã¢â¬ a race to show whoÃ¢â¬â¢s best at sparing the world. P&G Global Marketing Officer Jim Stengel P&G Global Marketing Officer Jim Stengel Nothing shows the developing hold Ã¢â¬Å"ethical marketingÃ¢â¬ has on the business better than the conceptÃ¢â¬â¢s developing grasp by the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s two greatest spenders. While both have been occupied with such endeavors for a considerable length of time, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re discussing them, and especially publicizing them, more than ever. No not as much as Bill Gates as of late referenced Unilever as a top-of-mind case of an organization engaged with manageability endeavors in a CNBC meet from the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. Unilever likewise won top distinctions in worldwide moral notoriety rankings from PR-observing firm Covalence in 2007 and Columbia UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Botwinick Prize in business morals, to a limited extent for such endeavors as DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Campaign for Real BeautyÃ¢â¬ which expects to arrive at 5 million young ladies with confidence programs. Truth be told, the line between doing great and promoting has become foggy enough that DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"EvolutionÃ¢â¬ viral video must be yanked from a not-revenue driven grouping at last to fit the bill for last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s Film Grand Prix at Cannes. A similar day as Mr. GatesÃ¢â¬â¢ talk with, P&G demonstrated it would impart about its supportability endeavors Ã¢â¬ characterized to include an expansive scope of network improvement programs Ã¢â¬ an a lot greater need in 2008. P&G goes past It will be difficult to accomplish more conveying than P&G as of now has done. In any event eight P&G b
Monday, July 20, 2020
Understanding Blooms Taxonomy for Learning Faster Have you ever wondered how we as humans learn and use our knowledge to progress through life?What is the basis of our knowledge and which steps does our brain take to implement everything we learned not just from school but from life in general?Well, it turns out that a famous American educational psychologist wanted to answer this question roughly sixty years ago and working with other psychologists he published a book called Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, which was meant to help not only teachers but also students to learn better and faster.Imagine it like a guide for the teachers made for the purpose of knowing how to manage the process of learning in the students so they can not only remember what theyâve learned but also fully understand the subject they are taking and at the end even produce their own work.This all sounds a bit hard to imagine, even for me as I entered into college because I didnt know exactly how to process the huge amount of information poured down on me every lecture let alone to produce something of my own, but after learning about Blooms taxonomy I quickly started to get a grip of what to do with the information Ive to remember and use it to my advantage. WHAT IS LEARNING?Before we start to explain Bloomâs taxonomy first we must discuss what is considered learning so that we can understand how to learn faster using the taxonomy.Our whole experience is the result of learning â" our ability to speak, to understand concepts, to use different knowledge, our skills and views, social roles and so on.Learning by definition is a relatively permanent and specific change in our personality which can manifest through our behavior and is a result of the previous action.It has an adaptive characteristic meaning it widens the repertoire of inherited activities which go beyond our inherited behavior, for example reflexes and instincts.Now that weâve briefly explained what learning is we can dwell deep into Bloomâs taxonomy and see how he viewed the process of learning, and also what we can change in our way of studying in order to acquire the proper knowledge of the world. A SHORT BACKGROUND ON BENJAMIN BLOOMBenjamin Bloom, born on February 21st in 1913, was as I said a psychologist who had a lot of influence on the theory of mastery learning and contributed to the classification of educational objectives.He was a ground-breaking educational psychologist who really paved the way for understanding how we actually learn things and what goes on in our minds when we study and also what are the methods which can be used to by both the teacher and the student in order to get better results.Working with other psychologists such as Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl, he published his ground-breaking book published in 1956, called Taxonomy of Educational Objectives famously called today Bloomâs Taxonomy.And thus the Bloomâs Taxonomy was born, but the original version isnât used as much as the adapted version mainly because the book is sixty years old and a lot of study on the topic of education has been done since then.Thatâs why psychologists who studied this topic wanted to implement everything theyâve learned in Bloomâs taxonomy without changing the original concept, and we should be thankful to them and Bloom for giving us this finished product.BLOOMS ORIGINAL TAXONOMYIn the book, he presented six major categories and every category had a subcategory but itâs important to remember the main ones because they go from concrete to abstract. The list below will be explaining the main categories:Knowledge â" By knowledge Bloom meant the recall of specific and universal subjects, methods and processes and also the recall of patterns, structure, and settings. Comprehension â" It refers to understanding and using the material or ideas weve learned so that know what we are talking about with other people without relating it to other subjects or material and usin g other implications. Application â" This means to use abstractions in some particular and concrete situations.Analysis â" By this, he meant to breakdown the communication into key elements so the ideas and concepts are clearer and easier to understand without leaving the original topic and also to make them more explicit. Synthesis â" It means collecting the key elements and ideas and forming them into a whole.Evaluation â" This refers to making judgments on the value of the material and methods used for a given purpose.ADAPTED BLOOMS TAXONOMYThe Blooms Taxonomy as we know it today was adopted in a newer version by a group of psychologists and was published in 2001, and in this version, the famous Blooms Taxonomy pyramid was created.Why do we use this adapted version you may ask? Mainly because the concepts portraying Bloomâs original idea are easier to understand and use with this newer version and it became such a classical representation that people tend to think it is Blo omâs original concept. Poor Bloom.All jokes aside, the newer version really did shed light on Blooms idea on how to learn faster and easier and is now used by many teachers and professors across the globe.Helping both the students and the teachers and really if you boil it down, this new version hasnt really strayed far from Blooms original intentions.This newer version kept the basic categories that Bloom has presented but it has also widened the theory and even portrayed the four types of knowledge which we will get back to later.For now, let us focus on what the adapted taxonomy looks like.1. RememberingThis is the base of the pyramid and is referred to what Bloom meant when he talked about knowledge.It depicts how we remember key ideas, shapes, material, structures and so and which are the processes that are carried out in our mind when we try to remember all of that.There are literal verbs to describe what the word remembering means in terms of Bloomâs taxonomy and I will b e doing this for every category.Remembering means: copying; defining; finding; locating; quoting; listening; repeating; retrieving; outlining; highlighting; memorizing; networking; searching; identifying; selecting; tabulating; duplicating; matching; bookmarking and bullet-pointing.Knowing this, your job as a teacher is to help the student learn all of these tactics so they can have a better way of remembering the subject you are presenting them and also itâs the studentâs job to try to implement these methods in his studying in order to acquire the proper understanding of the subject. 2. UnderstandingThe second level of the pyramid, understanding, is similar to Bloomâs concept of comprehension.It explains how the student can grasp the knowledge he has learned and truly see what the subject is all about, of course first he has to remember what the subject is and what key elements compile it.Understanding means: annotating; associating; tagging; summarizing; relating; categoriz ing; paraphrasing; predicting; comparing; contrasting; commenting; journaling; interpreting; grouping; inferring; estimating; extending; gathering; exemplifying and expressing.The teachers job is to try to explain a new concept to the student by giving examples and digging deep into its actual meaning before going to practical use of the concept, because without the definition of the concept students tend to use the words theyve learned without a clear understanding of what that concept truly means.3. Applying This is the third level of the taxonomy. It has the same meaning as in Bloomâs original concept and means that the student needs to apply his knowledge in real situations in order to truly portray his knowledge of the subject.Applying means: acting out; articulate; reenact; choosing; determining; displaying; judging; executing; examining; implementing; sketching; experimenting; hacking; interviewing; painting; preparing; playing; integrating; presenting and charting.4. Analy zingOnce again, same as Blooms concept but has a wider definition.Basically, it means that the student needs to be able to analyze and figure out what the concepts related in the subject truly mean with or without the teacherâs help.Picture it as taking off the training wheels and letting the student figure out things with his own brain without the teacher interfering with his work, but as always the teacherâs job is to guide the student in the right path.Analyzing means: calculating; categorizing; breaking down; correlating; deconstructing; linking; mashing; mind-mapping; organizing; appraising; advertising; dividing; distinguishing; illustrating; structuring; questioning; integrating; attributing; estimating and explaining.This really is the most crucial level of the taxonomy because it is the stepping stone of the whole process of learning and that is thinking with your own head, because what good is the knowledge that you know if you just learn it from one source and donâ t stop and think if it actually true.5. EvaluatingYes, I know that this was the last category of Bloomâs concept but in this adapted version it is the fifth level of knowledge and for a good reason.This is mainly because Blooms original idea was to explain which are the processes that are carried out in our mind when it comes across new information and how it uses it.But this adapted version ads a new category, which we will explain later so, for now, let us see what evaluating means.Evaluating means: arguing; validating; testing; assessing; criticizing; commenting; debating; defending; detecting; experimenting; grading; hypothesizing; measuring; moderating; posting; predicting; rating; reflecting; reviewing and editorializing.In contrast to analyzing, evaluating is a mighty tool which can be used to differentiate which elements of the subject are more important to understand that the others and this gives the students a clearer understanding on how to deal with massive amounts of information and how to extract the information that they need.6. CreatingThe sixth and the final level of learning is not what Bloom had in mind but this adapted version made ground-breaking evidence that the knowledge learned is best portrayed by the creation of a self-made work, for example, a written paper, essay or even a doctorate.Creating means: blogging; building; animating; adapting; collaborating; composting; directing; devising; podcasting; writing; filming; programming; simulating; role-playing; solving; mixing; facilitating; managing; negotiating and leading. This may well be the answer to the studentâs most often asked question â" why do we need to take written tests?Well, because when you donât look at a test as a torture method and really a way for you as a student to write a creative answer to the questions in the test and in that way to create maybe even a never before seen approach to the subject, Iâm sure you will be proud of how much youâve progresse d.KNOWLEDGE TAXONOMYThis taxonomy is used in order to represent the different types of knowledge a student can have and also will serve as a guide tool for the teacher so that they know what to expect when they come across with students who are learning some subjects slower than others but perfect in other subjects.Factual knowledge â" This kind of knowledge is based on knowledge of terminology and also specific details and elements.Conceptual knowledge â" It refers to the knowledge of classifications and categories, principles and generalizations and theories, models and structures.Procedural knowledge â" Its the knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms, techniques and methods and criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures.Metacognitive knowledge â" It consists of strategic knowledge, knowledge of cognitive tasks (appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge) and self-knowledge.Whatâs really great about this knowledge taxonomy is that by combin ing the types of knowledge with the levels of knowledge from Bloomâs taxonomy you can get a real representation of how the two are connected and also they explain not only the process but also the activity which is associated with a certain objective.For example, if you combine remembering with procedural knowledge you will recall how to do CPR, or if you combine understanding with factual knowledge you will summarize features of a new product.This is quite helpful when teachers want to make curriculum plans or even if they plan on having a project done among groups of students so if you are a teacher reading this keep that in mind.WHAT DO WE USE BLOOMS TAXONOMY FOR?Now that we have covered the basics of Bloomâs Taxonomy it is time to see how it can be implemented into your study as a student and lessons program as a teacher in order to get better results.Its not all about getting good grades, what is more, important is to make the student learn faster and also much easier than just cramming information in his brain.It is important for the teacher to come up with objectives for the student to complete when they have a new lesson or every two weeks at least so the student is constantly involved in the subject and to stop him from forgetting the crucial concepts.Bloomâs Taxonomy can be used for:Creating assessments â" meaning it can be used to document the studentâs knowledge to see how far did he went in understanding and learning a certain subject.Lesson planning â" it can also be used by the teacher to plan the lessons he/her is going to teach step by step in order to introduce the student with the basic concepts and later present him with abstract examples.Evaluating assignments â" this refers to knowing how to present the assignments that the student must fulfill and also to give him complex tasks to do considering his current knowledge level.Curriculum design â" it can also be used to design a sort of a map of the curriculum for both students a nd teachers to know how the lessons should be organized along with which concepts should be introduced first and which later.Project-based learning â" this is also a good way to assign projects to students and using all those verbs that we described they can serve as guidance when completing the project. For example, you as a teacher can assign one or a group of students to make a survey about a certain topic and they will have to finish the project by using the methods from Bloomâs taxonomy.Self-assessment â" this can also come in handy for students in order to see where they stand in a certain subject and it is crucial for them to understand what they can do in order to have better results.LEARNING SHOULD BE FUN AND EASYNow I need to shed some light on learning itself because I hate to break it to you but not all students like to study and find joy in doing so.There are some students that actually hate anything that has to do with school or college or any type of hard thinking .However, this is where Blooms taxonomy can fall into place because it dissects the process of learning into the categories we discussed earlier and will surely give those kinds of students some motivation to try hard and do their best.Besides, learning is fun once you figure out what a certain subject is composed of, and when you implement all the levels of knowledge from Bloomâs pyramid any student will at least find the subject easier that he/she did before.The good thing is that Bloomâs taxonomy can be used for any subject out there, from learning a new language, history to even understanding rocket science.It can be implemented in such a way that the student can actually have fun learning.And having fun while learning is really important because we associate knowledge with emotions meaning if a subject can spark joy we will understand its concepts better and will actually enjoy learning it.For example, I hated learning German and quite frankly I still do but once I heard ab out Bloomâs taxonomy I noticed what I needed to do in order to learn German better and I canât deny that it really helped me.THE PROBLEM OF TODAYS LEARNING AND HOW BLOOMS TAXONOMY FIXES ITYou see, we need to understand that conventional education forces the students to learn the subjects their teachers present them without any hard thinking about why do they even learn those subjects let alone allowing them to think outside the box.What Blooms taxonomy changed was the overall connection between the teacher and his students because using the taxonomy they both can track the progress which the student is making and also provides them with essential tools to understand at what level does the student stand when it comes to know that subject.It is an often sighting that even a student with a college degree doesnt seem to have grasped the knowledge he learned in college and for that reason, Blooms taxonomy should be used by every school and college.I know that everyone has their own s tudy method, but itâs not about that, the taxonomy should be used to understand what you know and what you donât know about a certain subject and of course in what way to retain most of your knowledge so that you can understand fully all the concepts of the subject.Not only will you learn faster with using the taxonomy but you will also learn how that knowledge is being processed in the brain making you be able to understand concepts more quickly and save time by remembering what you already know.FINAL WORDI hope that this article was useful for both teachers and students wanting to be more productive and learn faster by not making school harder than it needs to be and also progressing to that stage of development where students can, with quite ease, understand even the most complex concepts.It is time for the teachers to take notes and implement this taxonomy when they plan their curriculum which will benefit not only them because they will save time having to plan it every yea r but also the students because they will see their grades getting higher right before their eyes.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Code of Ethics Overview National Association of Social Workers created a Code of Ethics to determine how and when social workers should conduct their work to ensure clients are being treated effectively. The mission of social workers is to enhance human well-being and help to meet the basic human needs of all people. (National Association of Social Workers, 2008) Social workers fundamentally focus on the forces that create, contribute to, and address problems in living. (National Association of Social Workers, 2008) The social work profession was created to promote social justice and change on behalf of clients. (National Association of Social Workers, 2008) Within the code of ethics, theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(National Association of Social Workers, 2008) The core values are: service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. (National Association of Social Workers, 2008) The Code of Ethics has six purposes that are served to direct the actions of the social worker. The purposes are: 1. The Code identifies core values on which social workÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is based. 2. The Code summarizes broad ethical principles that reflect the professionÃ¢â¬â¢s core values and establishes a set of specific ethical standards that should be used to guide social work practice. 3. The Code is designed to help social workers identify relevant considerations when professional obligations conflict or ethical uncertainties arise. 4. The Code provides ethical standards to which the general public can hold the social work profession accountable. 5. The Code socializes practitioners new to the field to social workÃ¢â¬â¢s mission, values, ethical principles, and ethical standards. 6. The Code articulates standards that the social work profession itself can use to assess whether social workers have engaged in unethical conduct. NASW has formal procedures to adjudicate ethics complaints filed against its members.* In subscribing to this Code, social workers are required to cooperate in its implementation, participate in NASW adjudication proceedings, and abide by any NASW
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
EDST 1104 Ã¢â¬â Social Perspectives in Education Assessment 2 - Essay TANUWIJAYA, Wirya Z3483970 Why is it important and/or helpful for initial teacher educators such as yourself, to learn about, and learn to use, ideas from the sociology of education? Social influences on educational outcomes and the social nature of education structures of the past and present exemplify how social institutions can affect education perceived by individuals. This can also be defined as the sociology of education; a study of education systems of how social institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcome, as interpreted by Scott and Marshall (2009). This essay will address how the background of sociology of education (culture of power that exist) shapes the current social perspectives in education, how sociology of education contributes and its usefulness for initial educators. Sociology, education and history Firstly, it is fundamental for scholars to understand the relationship between the roots of educational sociology and the sociology of education. Education is being integrated into sociology, the latter considered by many educators as a supporting beam of pedagogy (in addition to philosophy, anthropology, psychology, biology, ethics and aesthetics). Through this, the knowledge of sociological method, problems and generalizations may be adequately interpreted to every educator. Surely, contemporary education cannot disregard the contributions of sociology. InShow MoreRelatedStudent s Social Background And Their Connections Within Society1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesimperative to understand a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s social background and their connections within society. Julie Matthews regards education being concerned with the transmission of culture, values, beliefs, knowledge and skills (2013,p166). 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Micro-sociology gives explanations in terms of how people make things happen by interpreting their experience and acting on their interpretations. Macro-sociology divides into consensus and conflict approaches. The former view society as similar to the humanRead MoreCompare and Contrast the Marxist and Functionalist Interpretations of Education in Society1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCarrie-Anne Hall 05007672 Sociology Essay Compare and contrast the Marxist and functionalist interpretations of education in society. The role of education is to educate individuals within society and to prepare them for working life in the economy, also to integrate individuals and teach them the norms, values and roles within society. 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New research suggests that dolphins are second only to humans in smarts. Ã¢â¬â MRI scans indicate that these marine mammals are self-aware. Ã¢â¬â Researchers think dolphins are especially vulnerable to suffering and trauma. We will write a custom essay sample on Dolphin or any similar topic only for you Order Now When human measures for intelligence are applied to other species, dolphins come in Just behind humans in brainpower, according to new research. Dolphins demonstrate skills and awareness previously thought to be present only in humans. New MRI scans show that dolphin brains are four to five times larger for their body size when compared to another nimal of similar size, according to Lori Marino, a senior lecturer in neuroscience and behavioral biology at Emory University, and one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading dolphin experts. Humans also possess an impressive brain-to-body ratio. Ã¢â¬Å"If we use relative brain size as a metric of Ã¢â¬ËintelligenceÃ¢â¬â¢ then one would have to conclude that dolphins are second in intelligence to modern humans,Ã¢â¬ said Marino, who performed several MRI scans on dolphin brains. Marino will be presenting her findings at next monthÃ¢â¬â¢s American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting. Ã¢â¬Å"Size isnÃ¢â¬â¢t verything,Ã¢â¬ she admitted, but she says at least two other lines of evidence support her claims about dolphin intelligence. First, various features of the dolphin neocortex the part of the brain involved in higher-order thinking and processing of emotional information are Ã¢â¬Å"particularly expandedÃ¢â¬ in dolphins. Second, behavioral studies conducted by Marino and other experts demonstrate that dolphins exhibit human- like skills. These include mirror self-recognition, cultural learning, comprehension of symbol-based communication systems, and an understanding of abstract concepts. The NavyÃ¢â¬â¢s Marine Mammal Program began in 1960 with two goals. First, the Navvy wanted to study the underwater sonar capabilities of dolphins and beluga whales to learn how to design more efficient methods of detecting objects underwater, and to improve the speed of their boats and submarines by researching how dolphins are able to swim so fast and dive so deep. In addition to this research component, the Navvy also trained dolphins, beluga whales, sea lions and other marine mammals to perform various underwater tasks, including delivering equipment to divers nderwater, locating and retrieving lost objects, guarding boats and submarines, and doing underwater surveillance using a camera held in their mouths. Dolphins were used for some of these tasks in the Vietnam War and in the Persian Gulf. The Marine Mammal Program was originally classified, and was at its peak during the Cold War. The Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s military was conducting similar research and training programs in the race to dominate the underwater front. At one point during the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, the U. S. program had over 100 dolphins, as well as numerous sea lions and beluga whales, and an operating budget ot $8 million dollars. By the Ã¢â¬Ës, however, the Cold W was over, and the NavvyÃ¢â¬â¢s Marine Mammal project was downsized. In 1992, the program became declassified. Many of the dolphins were retired, and controversy arose over whether or not it would be feasible to return unnecessary dolphins to the wild. pecific Tasks Navvy marine mammals are trained to perform many underwater duties, including Bottlenose dolphins detect and mark of underwater mines. The animal locates a mine and then deposits a weighted buoy line near the mine in order to mark it. California sea lions attach grabber devices to underwater objects for etrieval. This system is used extensively in training exercises with divers f or Explosive Ordnance Disposal units. Practice mines are placed on the sea floor; those not found by the divers during the exercise are retrieved by the sea lions. Bottlenose dolphins are used to detect and defend against enemy swimmers. This procedure was used in both the Vietnam War and the Persian Gulf to protect Navvy anchored vessels from enemy swimmers seeking to plant explosives. The dolphins would swim slowly, patrolling the area with their sonar, and alert armed trainer guards if they located a swimmer. They are also trained to Ã¢â¬Å"tagÃ¢â¬ the enemy swimmer with a marker so that Navvy personnel can apprehend him. During the Vietnam War, rumors circulated about a Ã¢â¬Å"swimmer nullification programÃ¢â¬ in which dolphins were also being trained to shoot at enemy swimmers with a device similar to the tagging device. The Navvy denies that any such program existed or that any dolphin has ever been trained to attacka human. 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s naw begins use of marine mammals 1965 sea lab II In 1965, the Marine Mammal Program began its first military project: Sea Lab II. Working in the waters off La Jolla, California, a bottlenose dolphin named Tuffy ompleted the first successful open ocean military exercise. He repeatedly dove 200 feet to the Sea Lab II installation, carrying mail and tools to naw personnel. He was also trained to guide lost divers to safety. 965-75 dolphins used in Vietnam The Navvy sent five dolphins to Cam Ranh Bay to perform underwater surveillance and guard military boats from enemy swimmers. Although during this era rumors circulated about a Ã¢â¬Å"swimmer nullification programÃ¢â¬ through which dolphins were trained to attack and kill enemy swimmer, the Navvy denies such a program ever existed. 1975 ntroduction of sea lions and beluga whales With the success of the dolphin pro gram, the Navvy began working with sea lions, training them to recover military hardware or weaponry fired and dropped in the ocean. The sea lions could dive and recover objects at depths of up to 650 feet. The Navvy also began exploring the use of beluga whales, which, like dolphins, use sonar to navigate. Beluga whales could operate at much colder temperatures and deeper depths than either dolphins or sea lions. naw builds up collection of dolphins The Marine Mammal Program reached its heyday in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, with an expanded udget and increased number of dolphins. In 1986, Congress partially repealed the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act by letting the Navvy collect wild dolphins from for Ã¢â¬Å"national defense purposes. Ã¢â¬ The Navvy planned to use the dolphins to expand its mine disposal units and to stock a breeding program. 1986-88 dolphins in the Persian gulf The naw sent six dolphins to the Persian Gulf, where they patrolled the harbor in Bahrain to protect US flagships from enemy swimmers and mines, and escorted Kuwaiti oil tankers through potentially dangerous waters. One of the dolphins, Ã¢â¬Å"Skippy,Ã¢â¬ died ofa bacterial infection. ssile guarding project in Bangor abandoned In the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s the Navvy began a project through which dolphins would act as guards at the Bangor Washington Trident Missile Base. Animal activists opposed the project, and filed suit against the Navvy under the National Environmental Protection Act claiming that the Navvy must do an environmental evaluation to determine whether deployment in the cold northern waters off Bangor would harm dolphins originally captured in the Gulf of Mexico. A Judge ruled that such a study must be completed before the project could continue. The Navvy abandoned the project. By 1994, the Navvy policy on moving dolphins to environments with radically different water temperatures changed; a spokesperson said that in general, the Navvy would only move dolphins between environments with a 20 degree difference in temperature, except in emergency situations. 1990S downsizing, declassification, retirement With the end of the Cold War, the NavvyÃ¢â¬â¢s budget for the marine mammal program was drastically reduced, and all but one of its training centers were closed down. Of the 103 dolphins remaining in the program, the Navvy decided it needed only 70 to maintain its downsized operations. Much of the project was declassified, although certain details remain protected. This raised the question of what to do with the remaining dolphins. In the 1992 Defense Appropriations Act, Congress alloted a half million dollars to the Navvy to Ã¢â¬Å"to develop training procedures which will allow mammals which are no longer required for this project to be released into their natural habitat. The Navvy held two conferences of researchers and experts and determined that a reintroduction program would not be cost effective. In an attempt to downsize its dolphin troops, the Navvy offered to give its surplus trained dolphins o marine parks However, interest in the tree dolphins was low because many marine parks by this time had developed successful in-house breeding programs. The Navvy only got only four requests, but pledged to care for the unclaimed dolphins until th eir deaths. Later in 1994, the Navvy agreed to send three dolphins to Sugarloaf sanctuary, near Key West in Florida, a rehabilitation facility run by Ric OÃ¢â¬â¢Barry. OÃ¢â¬â¢Barry planned to reeducate the dolphins so they could be safely released into the wild, once the necessary federal permits were granted. 1996 illegal release of Luther and Buck Two of the dolphins being held at the Sugarloaf Sanctuary, Luther and Buck, were being prepared for life in the wild while awaiting federal permits for their release. In May, before the permits had been issued, OÃ¢â¬â¢Barry released the dolphins into the Gulf of Mexico. He believed that the dolphins were ready for release and that the bureaucratric requirements for a permit were designed to prevent the release of the Navvy dolphins. He thought that to wait any longer before letting them go would jeopardize their chances of successful adaptation to the wild. read OÃ¢â¬â¢BarryÃ¢â¬â¢s defense f his actions, and criticism of the release from Naomi Rose The dolphins were recaptured less than two weeks later and returned to the Navvy. All three of these dolphins are now back with the Navvy. One of them is still in Florida; the other two are back in San Diego in the Navvy facility there. 997 Ukrainian dolphins trained by the Soviet Navvy for military operations are now being used for therapy with autistic and emotionally disturbed children. Mahalia Jackson Mrs. Harvey English 093 (1 :OO) October 29, 2013 Dolphins Dolphins are very interesting creatures. There are many things about a dolphin you may not know about. They do many ditterent things witn hum ans, and they do many different things in their everyday lives. There are many peculiar amazing creatures in the ocean, but none of them compares to the dolphins. In the beginning of time about 50 million years ago research shows that dolphins were once a land animal. They looked like a wolf, as this animal they hunted in the shallow waters, and eventually they learned how to adapt between land and water. Research says, Ã¢â¬Å"That their forelegs became flippers, the hind legs disappeared and the fluke evolved, and their fur disappeared and the nostrils moved to the top of their head. This how they breathe today. Even though they surface ever few minutes in the water, they can stay under water up to 15 minutes. Now in order to navigate they use echolocation to find their way around the ocean or the sea. In order to find food the uses clicks to send out to return off of an object in the water researchers say, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s just like an echo. Ã¢â¬ This is how they find their food, dolphins. And other threatening animals or rocks. Just like humans have a family; well, dolphins have families that they live in. The families are usually or mostly lead by a female dolphin. Just like in a society of humans the females primarily are the head of the house hold or family. Every dolphin in the family help each other out, sometimes several families might come together to make a school of dolphins. Jackson 2 Dolphins are very intelligent, they are the second-smartest animal in the world. Research shows that dolphins shows skills and awareness that for many years they thought only humans had. They gave them MIR scans, and they found out that a dolphinÃ¢â¬â¢s brain is four to five times larger than their own bodies when it is compared to another animals of a similar size. Dolphins has been in the U. S. Navvy for more than forty years. The NavvyÃ¢â¬â¢s Marine Mammal Program began in 1960 and they had two reasons for this program. It was that the Navvy wanted to study the underwater sonar capabilities of dolphins, and to learn how to design more sufficient methods for detecting objects underwater, and to also improve the speed of their boats and submarines by researching how dolphins are able to swim so fast and dive so deep into the water. Dolphins Just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t Join the Navvy or became a part of it they had to be trained to do the Jobs they were going to be assigned to do. In order to help the Navvy in upcoming wars to come. They was trained to deliver equipment to divers underwater, locating and retrieving lost objects that the Navvy thought was important, guarding boats and submarines, and doing underwater surveillance using a camera to hold in their mouths. Researchers says, Ã¢â¬Å"The dolphins were trained to attack and kill the enemy in the Vietnam War. Ã¢â¬ Lastly, Dolphins are many things on this Earth. They are intelligent, they are used in the U. S. Navvy. In order to help them discover enemies and to protect the ships. They are descendants of wolves and that they ave hair itÃ¢â¬â¢s Just on the top of their head. Female dolphins are the head of the family, and several families might come and Join them. All together Dolphins are amazing creatures, they can be your friend and protect you to the end. How to cite Dolphin, Papers
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Textbooks and books are here to stay Publishing for the K-12 school market is an $8 billion industry, with three companies - McGraw-Hill, Pearson, and Houghton Mifflin Harcourt - capturing about 85% of this market. Tablets are a $72 billion industry with 42% of US adults owning a tablet. As tablets have become more prevalent, a new debate has formed over whether K-12 school districts should switch from print textbooks to digital textbooks on tablets. Although it is true and inevitable that Tablets help students better prepare for a world immersed in technology, there are numerous reasons installing tablets in K-12 schools is not very practical. Tablets are expensive, too distracting for students, easy to break, and costly/time-consuming to fix. Tablets also contribute to eyestrain, headaches, and blurred vision, increase the excuses available for students not doing their homework, require costly Wi-Fi networks, and become quickly outdated as new technologies are released. Handheld technological devices including tablets are associated with a range of health problems. Handhelds contribute to Computer Vision Syndrome, which causes eyestrain, headaches, blurred vision, and dry eyes, according to the American Optometric Association. People who use mobile devices more often have a higher incidence of musculoskeletal disorders associated with repetitive strain on muscles, including carpal tunnel syndrome, neck pain (text neck), shoulder pain, and fibromyalgia (Lin) (Fishman). In addition, manufacturing tablets is environmentally destructive and dangerous to human health. According to the New York Times, the adverse health impacts from making one e-reader are estimated to be 70 times greater than those from making a single book. One tablet requires the extraction of 33 pounds of minerals, 79 gallons of water, and 100 kilowatt hours of fossil fuels resulting in 66 pounds of carbon dioxide. Print books produce 100 times fewer greenhouse gases. Two gallons of water are required to make the pulp slurry that is pressed and heat-dried to make paper, and only two kilowatt hours are required to form and dry the sheets of paper (Goleman and Norris). Using tablets is also a significantly more expensive than using print textbooks. Implementing tablets in K-12 schools requires purchasing hardware (the tablet) and software (the textbooks), building new wi-fi infrastructure, and training teachers and administrators how to use the technology. Implementation costs for e-textbooks on iPad tablets are 552% higher than new print textbooks in an average high school. Lee Wilson, a prominent education marketing expert, estimated the annual cost per student per class with tablets to be $71.55 vs. $14.26 for print textbooks (Wilson). The higher cost of tablets also marginalizes poorer school districts and increases the digital divide. Rich school districts can afford to implement e-textbooks on tablets, while poor school districts cannot. Low income schools are less likely to implement an e-textbook program than to pay for teachers or basic classroom supplies. Even if we overlook the installation costs, there are still other finan cial hurdles to think about. Many students do not have sufficient home internet bandwidth to use tablets. Students need home broadband to access digital content and to complete Internet based homework, according to FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, but about a third of Americans - 100 million people - do not have broadband internet at home ( Digital Textbook Playbook"). A 2010 FCC survey found that nearly 80% of K-12 schools reported broadband connections that were inadequate to meet their current needs (Fletcher, Schaffhauser, and Levin). As if purchasing and setting up tablets wasn't expensive enough, there is also a huge hidden maintenance fee that comes along with every tablet. A broken tablet requires an experienced technician to fix, which can be costly and time-consuming. On the other hand, textbooks can usually be repaired with basic supplies such as glue or tape. Another setback that comes with digital learning is technical difficulties. Print textbooks cannot crash, freeze, or get hacked. Unlike tablets, there is no chance of getting malware, spyware, or having personal information stolen from a print textbook. The average battery life of a tablet is 7.26 hours, shorter than the length of a school day. Tablets constantly need charging, increasing electricity demands on schools and the need for new electrical outlets ( What Is the